Ethical Research Principles
- Belmont Report
The Belmont Report is the “Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research”. Finalized on April 18, 1979 by The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, this document identifies 3 primary ethical principles: Respect for Persons, Beneficence, and Justice.
- Declaration of Helsinki
The Declaration of Helsinki is a statement of ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. The document was adopted in June 1964 by the 18th World Medical Association General Assembly in Helsinki, Finland.
- Nuremburg Code
The Nuremburg Code identifies Directive for Human Experimentation. This code was derived from the Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law. This judgment established a new standard of ethical medical behavior for the post World War II human rights era. Amongst other requirements, this document enunciates the requirement of voluntary informed consent of the human subject. The principle of voluntary informed consent protects the right of the individual to control his own body.